Particular Average is a partial damage to or loss of a ship or its cargo affecting only the Shipowner or one Cargo Owner. It does not include damage brought about by the ordinary action of the wind and waves, nor gradual deterioration on account of ordinary use. Furthermore, it does not include damage brought about by a voluntary act, which, if done in time of peril for the common safety, will form a General Average sacrifice. Examples of cause of Particular Average damage are collision, contact (including stranding and grounding), heavy weather and fire. Also, damages resulting from crew negligence or from a latent defect in the hull or machinery are covered under most sets of hull insurance conditions. Whilst claims for Particular Average under a cargo policy are usually dealt with by the Insurer’s claims department, Average Adjusters are often appointed to process a claim for Particular Average under a ship’s hull & machinery policy. The reason for that is that issues like causation and allowances need to be addressed and dealt with by a person with detailed knowledge of the ins and outs of the different standard sets of hull insurance conditions and a whole array of special clauses that may be agreed to form part of the insurance cover.